1 The Adventures of Tom sawyer
2 Jane Eyre (简写本)
3. Hamlet，Othello，King Lear，Macbeth，A Midsummer Night's Dream，As you like it，Twelfth Night，The merchant of Venice（书虫系列简写本）
4. Hemingway The Old Man and the Sea
5. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
6. Jules Verne Around the World in Eighty Days
7. 辜鸿铭 The Spirit of the Chinese People
8. William M. Thackeray Vanity Fair
9. Lewis Carroll Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland
10. Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice
11. F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby
12. 杜丽霞 英语短篇小说选读（美国篇、英国篇、加拿大篇、澳大利亚篇）
1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
3. Little woman
4. Sons and Lovers
5. The Scarlet Letter
6. Miller: Death of a Salesman
7. 汪榕培 《英译陶诗》 外语教学与研究出版社
8. 王德春等 《汉英谚语与文化》 上海外语教育出版社
9. Linell Davis 《中西文化之鉴》 外语教学与研究出版社
10. Joan Pinkham 《中式英语之鉴》 外语教学与研究出版社
11. 陈望道 《修辞学发凡》 上海教育出版社 1979年版
12. 刘润清 《西方语言学流派》 外语教学与研究出版社 1999年版
13. 朱永涛 《英美文化基础教程》 外语教学与研究出版社 1991年版
14. 王宏印 《英汉翻译综合教程》 辽宁师范大学出版社
Literature Review写法：看了文献中作者相关理论之后，总结作者的观点在提出自己的看法，要求举例支撑观点的要举例 。具体写法可以参照以下格式
To better understand the characters of transformational and transactional leadership. Levinthal & March (2001) illustrates the fact that transactional and transformational leadership is intrinsically a collaboration and decision making orientation which emphasizes the development and empowerment of expertise ,the understanding of reform together with encouraging employees to carry out reforms. Bass & Avolio (2001) examines that leader set up objectives and orientations as well as spurring employees by clarifying roles and work requirements. They also present transactional leaders' charisma or idealized influence, inspirational motivation, stimulation and individualized consideration, which traits could get employees to exert them to working to the largest extent in order to achieve group goals. Schriesheim (2002) shows how each reward system is made use of in an organization so as to achieve leaders' vision. Pillai, et al (2003) expound that transactional and transformational leadership is based on the notion that leaders give employees rewards or punishments according to their performance in the course of transaction. Boisot (2003) points out, under transactional and transformational leadership, that leaders can create with employees a professional atmosphere and attitude. Through the development of the profession, decision sharing, and the promotion of self-value, they can co-create an environment where respect, acceptance, kindness, support for growth and learning are appreciated.
An example of literature review
Of the many who have looked at the relation between age and performance in universities none has as yet produced a definite answer to the apparently simple question “Do mature students do better or worse than younger students?”
Harris (1940) in the United States found evidence to suggest that younger students tended to obtain better degree results. Similar findings have been made in Britain by Malleson(1959), Howell (1962), Barnett and Lewis(1963), McCracken(1969) and Kapur(1972), in Australia by Flecker(1959) and Sanders(1961) , in Canada by Fleming (1959), and in New Zealand by Small(1966). However, most of these studies were based on samples of students who were generally aged between seventeen and twenty-one and the correlation techniques employed meant that the relationship between age and performance really only concerned this narrow age band. As such, the results probably suggest that bright children admitted early to higher education fare better than those whose entry is delayed while they gain the necessary qualifications. This view is supported by Harris (1940) who discovered that the relationship between age and performance disappeared when he controlled for intelligence. Other studies have shown that those who gain the necessary qualifications and then delayed entry for a year or two are more successful than those who enter directly from school (Thomas, Beeby and Oram 1939; Derbyshare Education Committee 1966).
Where studies have involved samples containing large numbers of older students the results have indicated that the relationship between age and performance is not a linear one. Philips Cullen(1955), for instance, found that those aged twenty-four and over tended to do better than the eighteen and nineteen age group. Sanders(1961) showed that the university success rate fell until the age of twenty or twenty-one, then from about twenty-two onwards the success rate began to rise again. The problem with these two studies is that many of the older students were returning servicemen. They were often “normal” entrants whose entry to university had been delayed by war and many had undergone some training in science or mathematics while in the armed forces. Also, while Eaton(1980) cites nine American studies which confirm the academic superiority of veterans, there is some contradictory British evidence. Mountford(1957) found that ex-service students who entered Liverpool University between 1947 and 1949 were more likely to have to spend an extra year or more on their courses and more likeyl to fail to complete their course.
Some studies have shown that whether mature students fare better or worse than younger students depends upon the subject being studied. Sanders(1963) has indicated that the maturity associated with increasing age and experience seems to be a positive predictor of success for some arts and social science courses. The general finding that older students do better in arts and social science and worse in science and maths is supported by Flecker(1959), Barnett, Holder and Lewis (1968), Fagin(1971)and Sharon(1971).
Walker’s (1975) study of mature students at Warwick University represents the best British attempt to unravel the relationship between age and performance, he took 240 mature undergraduates who were admitted to the university between 1965 and 1971 and compared their progress with that of all undergraduates. This gave him a reasonably large sample to work with and the timing meant that the results were not distorted by any “returning servicemen factor”. His methodology showed many other refinements. First, he excluded overseas students. Such students tend to be older than average and also to fare worse academically (Woodley 1979), thus influencing any age/performance relationship. Secondly, he used two measures of performance; the proportion of those leaving without obtaining a degree and the degree results of those taking final examinations. Finally, he weighted the degree class obtained according to its rarity value in each faculty.
The following findings achieved statistical significance:
(i) In total, mature students obtained better degrees than non-mature students.
(ii) In the arts faculty mature students obtained better degrees than non-mature students.
(iii) Mature students who did not satisfy the general entrance requirements obtained better degrees than all other students.
(iv) The degree results of mature students age twenty-six to thirty were better than those of all other mature students.
Several other differences were noted but they did not achieve statistical significance due to the small numbers involved. The mature student sample only contained thirty-tree women, twenty-six science students and thirty-seven aged over thirty. The aim of the present study was to extend Walker’s work to all British universities so that these and other relationships could be tested out on a much larger sample of mature students.
A Literature Review of An Empirical Study of
Multimodal Teaching Model in
Middle School English Listening Teaching in a Multimedia Context
In recent years, the theories of multimodal discourse and multimodality have gained many scholars’ attention. Many researchers study them and try to apply multimodal teaching to middle schools’ teaching. And nowadays, many famous language scholars are trying their best to do the empirical study on the multimodal teaching.
As a matter of fact, many noted researchers have made a brief definition of multimodality. “Multimodality means the combination of different semiotic modes---for example, language and music---in a communicative artifact or event” (Kress & Leeuwen 1996: 281). “Multimodality refers to the diverse ways in which a number of distinct semiotic resource system are both codeployed and cocontextualized in the making of a text-specific meaning” (Baldry & Thibault 2006: 21).
Since the 1990s of last century, the multimodal teaching approach has drawn the researchers’ and the teachers’ attention in abroad. As a matter of fact, the term “multimodal” was put forward by the New London Group in 1990, and it was the first time for people to hear this term. Then a book called Reading Image which systematically established the analysis model of social semiotic multimode (Kress & Leeuwen 1996: 68). In this book, it is first time to explain the grammar designed by vision systematically and survey the way that the pictures transmit the meaning. The author also quoted many examples to explain, such as child drawing, text-cut, camera pictures, and so on. This book supplies a very valuable theoretical instrument.
The development of the research of the multimodal discourse and text gives a strong supporting for the evolution of multimodal teaching. Unsworth posed the foundational theoretical knowledge of important textbook. He believed the teacher should have the knowledge of vision and discourse grammar and the ability of the computer assisted learning which can meet the requirements of teaching with the newly-minted electronic texts and images (Unsworth 2001). The book Perspectives on Multimodality which published in 2004 gave a guide to the multimodal research and the construction of the multimodal theory (Ventola & Charles 2004). In this book, the author carefully explained the multimodal discourse theory and the methodological problem, such as the levels of the modes, the source of the mode symbols, and the annotation of the database of six multimodal discourses. In another book, The Multimodal Discourse Analysis which was mainly edited by Halloran in 2004, the author collected the leading-edge research that is the production of multimodal text and discourse through two or even more models of symbolic communication and connection, such as the language, dynamic and static visual images, architecture and three-dimensional bodies (Halloran 2004). They are a series of case studies which use the framework of systemic-functional grammar to research how the meaning produces.
From what have been mentioned above, the research on multimodality indicates a great increasing in abroad. There are many well-known researchers study multimodality and multimodal teaching. Moreover, the attempts to the application of multimodality to education have been carried out more systematically and scientifically.
Scholars in China also did many experiments and researches in recent years. The introducer of domestic multimodality theory, Professor Gu Yueguo, has constructed a multimodal language database in 1993. In his point of view, “multimodality” is based on 20 sense organs that human owns. In the face to face communication, the facial expression, expression in eyes, gesture, posture, body language and clothes are likely revealed the message. During the teaching, the teachers try their best to mobilize all of the students’ sense organs to experience the teaching activities, and interact with the teachers (顾曰国 2007: 3-12). Professor Hu Zhuanglin in Peking University pointed out that people can draw the support from various ways and modalities to exchange and deal with various messages when they are interacting with others. This is meaning making and delivering (胡壮麟 2006: 1-10). As the matter of fact, language is multimodal. The famous scholar Zhang Delu mentioned that multimodal communication can make the listeners receive message by various ways, and it makes listeners understand and remember things easier than single- mode in Preliminary Investigation into the Concept of Design and the Selection of Modalities in Multimodal Foreign Language Teaching (张德禄 2010: 48-53). Long Feiyu and Zhao Pu believed that different kinds of modality can converse into others reciprocally, so that multimodal teaching has a great effect on the language learning (龙飞宇 赵璞 2009: 58-62).
Based on the theories of multimodal teaching, Zeng Qinmin conducted an experiment and a survey to explore the efficacy of this mode in the video-aural-oral course. Through the results of the test, she found that multimodal teaching is proved to be effective in improving students’ listening and speaking skills as well as their ability to do autonomous listening tasks, and that teaching mode also had a positive impact on the students’ attitudes towards English study (曾庆敏 2011: 72-76). Liu Rongjun conducted a teaching test in Beijing University of Technology, which based on the impact of single-mode and multimodal listening teaching under different speed levels on listening comprehension and the output of students of different levels. Then she analyzed the results of the test, and she found that multimodal teaching has an obvious effect on the development of listening ability (刘荣君 2011: 133-135). Xie Jingxian and Dong Jianqiao made an analysis on teaching college English listening that based on multimedia and multimodal teaching and learning. In this paper, they gave the definition of “listening” first, and then they analyzed how to choose the listening materials and how to design the listening tasks under a multimedia and multimodal context (谢竞贤 董剑桥 2010: 9-13).
This research first applies multimodal teaching model to middle school English listening teaching in a multimedia context, and the author conducts a two months’ teaching experiment in Hefei No. 45 Middle School so that to get convinced results. This research may not only provide a new teaching model for some English teachers to teach English listening better, but also to teach English speaking, reading and writing preferably.
Thanks to the publication of the MOVIE LITERATURE（xiong wei, 2009）, from the study, we know Forrest Gump almost involved all the major events from war to 1980s. On behalf of the main line, the film focused on rendering the black movement, the Vietnam War, the moon landing. Looking back 60 years, people often said that is a generation filled with violence, sex, drugs and it is called “Beat Generation”. The reason why director put such a stupid guy in that turbulent society is people advocated natural regression after the Cold War. The young people of that era, experienced and witnessed the unrest 1960s and 1970s, they preferred to think more rationally. The 1980s Americans seemed to regain traditional values and traditional virtues once lost.
The hero of the movie, Forrest Gump is running from the beginning to the end. He gets rid of his legs disability, bullying, death threats from the war by running. He gains dignity, friendship, love and wealth by running. Run means everything for Forrest Gump. But what does it mean to American? The author thinks there are two meaning. Firstly, it is a symbol of geographic mobility and social mobility. Secondly, it is a symbol of the cultural expansion of capitalism and the Spirit of Capitalism Greed grab.
In view of wang min(2009), the spirit of freedom, independence and equality are their main culture. Tracing back to 1620, there are 102 first immigrants to the North American continent on the Mayflower in order to establish a constraint and it is the basis of America’s founding. Americans advocating self-independence, highlight equality, confidence, these are main individualistic culture constitution which have been deeply integrated into blood of Americans. These American spirits are not tradition, but faith.
On his point of view, the fast pace of life, the American society changes long-tern in them, they don’t like to stay in a rut, they believe themselves and rely on its own determination. It is American unique American local culture, American dream is not a dream, but a pursuit of an ideal, a philosophy of life in the United States. For different Americans, the American dream is not exactly the same. The so-called American dream is the Americans pursuit of better society, it is enrichment of American culture.
The result of study(huang yan& chen yin cong&xie fang,2009 ) have revealed the meaning of American dream. Although many historians and sociologists have different perspectives, different Americans have different interpretation, in the author’s mind, American dream consists of several elements: the United States provides everyone the chance of success; success depends on their talents and efforts rather than family and background; everyone has equal rights; everyone has faith freedom. These elements are inextricably linked with the history, and historical background must combine the look. Under the influence of “counter- culture”, traditional American dream changed. The traditional American dream emphasized on the material savings, focusing on the desire and pursuit of wealth. However, in the 1960s “counter- culture” movement, the hippies have taken extreme way which different from the mainstream culture, they expressed their doubt about traditional values of the capitalist industrial society and affluence revolt, they think more of spiritual satisfaction, and personal fulfillment. In their decadent way of life, there is always flashing a radical, anger, and even romantic colorific idealism of light.
The author thinks the advantages far outweigh the disadvantage. Whatever you are black or white, smart or stupid, you only need to do our best, and then succeed. Forrest Gump taught to give people the key to success is: your own decision whether you are being the wise man or a fool. Because he does not think he is a fool, and he can do whatever he wants to do. This is the achievements of a career in the United States, the success of crux. Americans are always thinking about goals for the future. The American dream is true, the Cubans came to the United States to become a baseball star; every day, thousands of Mexicans crossed the border to find work, to raise their families and seek a better life. As long as you make a decision, to have your own goal, everything can be achieved.
According to the study of Journal of Suzhou University(ai qi& yang xi,2010), no matter in the past or now, one of the main reasons why people immigrated to the United States is through your own efforts, force and unremitting struggle will be able to get a better life and achieve your own ideal, that people have to work through their own diligence, courage, creativity and determination in the United States. Success does not rely on a particular social class and assistance from others. However, in reality, American dream emphasis too much on material wealth and personal success, a lot of people in pursuit of this dream and look forward to the realization of dreams. Although some of them succeeded, more lost and burst, when they wake up from dream, they would feel helpless and absurd.